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An examination of the required operational skills and training standards for a Close Protection Operative in South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Minnaar, A. (Prof.) en Schneider, Gavriel en 2009-08-25T10:46:14Z 2009-08-25T10:46:14Z 2009-08-25T10:46:14Z 2005-03-31 en
dc.identifier.citation Schneider, Gavriel (2009) An examination of the required operational skills and training standards for a Close Protection Operative in South Africa, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <> en
dc.description.abstract The aim of this study was to determine the current operational skills requirements for Close Protection Operatives (CPOs) in South Africa. Operational skills refer to those skills that are vital in order for a CPO to effectively protect a designated person (this person is referred to as the `Principal'). In order to determine any shortcomings in the Close Protection industry, twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with current operational CPOs. A detailed literature review was also done in order to create a solid platform for the research and to assist in the verification of the information. During the research, it was found that the task of providing Close Protection could be divided into various sub-categories. This was necessary in order to gain a rounded perspective of a CPO's roles and duties. CPO's tasks in their entirety had to be unpacked into their smaller sub-components. In fact there were many ways to subdivide the skills requirements and functions of CPOs. It was, however, found that the actual subdivisions were less important than the gaining of a comprehensive understanding of how all the aspects are interrelated and should function synergistically. The need for regulation of the South African Close Protection industry was identified as a major concern among all interview respondents. In order to determine the relevant factors involved in regulation, the way countries such as the United Kingdom (UK), Australia and Israel regulate their industries, was assessed. It was noted that the industry in South Africa is `partially regulated'. This means that there is some sort of registration process for CPOs but no comprehensive monitoring and enforcement of accepted minimum competency standards. Currently in South Africa private sector CPOs are rated on the same scale as security guards and must be registered as a Grade level C with the Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (PSIRA). This is not an effective manner to regulate CPOs. CPOs should be viewed as professionals and specialists since their skills far exceed those of a security guard (Grade C). According to South Africa's Skills Development Plan all industries will fall under Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs). Close Protection is grouped under the Police, Private Security, Legal, Correctional Services and Justice Sector Education and Training Authority (POSLEC SETA). There is currently a South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) Unit Standard for Close Protection (Protection of Designated Persons, Units Standard number: 11510). However, the research revealed that while the unit standard correctly outlines the operational skills requirements of CPOs there are no assessment guidelines or clearly defined minimum skills requirements. Before the unit standard can be effectively implemented, agreed industry minimum standards for the relevant skills divisions in Close Protection need to be identified and implemented. But currently there is some confusion regarding which body is responsible for, firstly developing acceptable unit standards; secondly, getting the industry as a whole to agree and accept such standards; thirdly, to see to it that training on those standards is provided; and finally the monitoring of these standards in practice. In this study various training related factors were identified and examined in order to assess whether the way CPOs are trained in South Africa is effective or not. Aspects such as the intensity, focus, duration and content were examined. In general it was found that it is important for the following to be implemented: 1. Effective screening and pre-training evaluation of potential trainees. 2. Training should be job orientated and focus on training CPOs for the functions that they will actually have to perform. 3. Training methodologies should focus on an outcomes based approach and utilise the fundamentals of adult based education. 4. Training should simulate reality including the related stress factors that are placed on operational CPOs such as lack of sleep and high levels of activity interspersed with boring waiting periods. 5. Ongoing training and re-training are vital components to a CPO maintaining operational competency. 6. Close Protection instructors need to have both an operational background and training in instructional methodologies before being considered competent. It is important that in the long term international recognition of South African Close Protection qualifications is achieved. This is essential since many South African CPOs operate internationally. Globalisation and improvements in technology have made it easier for international networking to take place. This has meant that clients are using CPOs in different countries and international comparisons are inevitable. If South African CPOs are to be considered `world class' then internationally recognised minimum standards need to be implemented for the South African Close Protection industry. The research indicated and highlighted various trends that may affect the Close Protection industry. The trends identified that seemed most relevant to the South African Close Protection industry were as follows: * Increased public awareness of international terrorism has resulted form acts such as the 9/11 attacks. This has made people more aware of the need for and benefits of security. Use of well trained CPOs is one of the ways that potential clients are able to minimise their exposure to any potential terrorist attack. * A CPO's ability to communicate and liaise with all relevant parties involved in the Close Protection environment is vital to the success of any operation. Therefore it is vital that these aspects receive the relevant focus during training. * The CPO needs to be well trained in use of unarmed combat and alternative weaponry. He/she can no longer rely on the use of a firearm as the primary force option. * A CPO needs to be able to adapt to many different situations. It is important that a CPO is trained to blend in and use the correct protocol in any given situation. The focus of operations should be on operating in a low profile manner to avoid unnecessary attention. * A CPO needs to be well trained in all aspects of planning and avoidance. The skills needed to proactively identify and avoid threats are vital to modern day operations. The CPO also needs to be quick thinking and adaptable in order to function effectively. * A CPO needs to have a working knowledge of all security related aspects that could enhance the safety of his/her Principal (i.e. multi-skilled). In addition to the above mentioned factors, other recommendations emanating from this study focused on minimum competency standards for the identified subdivisions of close protection. Examples of possible assessment guidelines and criteria were identified covering the following broad classifications: * Prior educational qualifications * Physical abilities * CPO skills * Prior experience in guarding * Firearm skills * Unarmed combat * Protective skills * First aid skills * Security knowledge * Advanced driver training * Protocol and etiquette * Management and business skills * Related skills en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject.lcsh Crime prevention -- South Africa
dc.subject.lcsh Private security services -- South Africa
dc.subject.lcsh Private security services -- South Africa -- Management
dc.subject.lcsh Bodyguards -- Training of
dc.subject.lcsh Security guards -- Training of
dc.subject.lcsh Industries -- Security measures
dc.title An examination of the required operational skills and training standards for a Close Protection Operative in South Africa en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.department Criminology and Security Science en (M.Tech (Security Management)) en

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