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A sustainable livelihood framework for community-based tourism: a case of the African Ivory Route in Limpopo Province

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dc.contributor.advisor Nicolau, M. D. Letsoalo, Josephine Mampheri 2020-05-15T05:24:40Z 2020-05-15T05:24:40Z 2020-01 2020-05
dc.description.abstract Inadequate attention has been paid to the complexity of rural livelihoods and the dimensions of poverty. Although progress has been achieved in poverty reduction in many countries over the years, statistics indicate that there is still much to be done. Nearly half of the population of South Africa is poor. Sustainable Livelihood Approaches see poverty reduction as achievable through diversification of livelihood strategies. Communities can benefit from the development of tourism through employment, financial gains, infrastructure creation and cultural revitalisation. While fees charged for tourism activities have the potential to contribute to locals, they are rarely controlled by them. The aim of this study was to formulate a Sustainable Livelihood Framework for Tourism (SLFT) along the African Ivory Route. The study involved fourteen villages near Fundudzi, Mtomeni and Nthubu camps which were purposively selected as they represented the three main ethnic groups in the province. Mixed method research design was used and included qualitative and quantitative approaches. A 10% sample was selected from the total number of households. Questionnaires, focus group and key informant interviews were used to collect data. The data was analysed and presented in tables, graphs and maps. The perceptions of the communities towards the African Ivory Route were both positive and negative. The benefits included, improved network, community empowerment and development of infrastructure. The constraints included, conflicts, mistrust, political interference and power struggle among the various institutions. The study concluded that the African Ivory Route has not achieved sustainable livelihoods outcomes for the concerned communities. The recommendation was that frameworks for maximising benefits from tourism were necessary to directly support community development. Communities, Institutions, Tourists and Environment (CITE) framework was conceptualised to assess the best way for attaining positive sustainable livelihoods outcomes. en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xx, 272 leaves) : illustrations (chiefly color), graphs (chiefly color), color maps en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Diversification en
dc.subject Development en
dc.subject Poverty en
dc.subject Communities en
dc.subject Rural livelihood strategies en
dc.subject Community-based tourism en
dc.subject Sustainable livelihood framework for tourism en
dc.subject Sustainable livelihoods outcomes en
dc.subject Institutions en
dc.subject Environment en
dc.subject.ddc 916.825
dc.subject.lcsh Tourism -- Environmental aspects -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.subject.lcsh Poverty -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.subject.lcsh Ivory industry -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.subject.lcsh Sustainable tourism -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.subject.lcsh Sustainable living -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.subject.lcsh Environmental impact analysis -- South Africa -- Limpopo en
dc.title A sustainable livelihood framework for community-based tourism: a case of the African Ivory Route in Limpopo Province en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.department Geography en Ph. D. (Geography)

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