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The Origins of Hate Crime Laws

Show simple item record Naidoo, Kamban 2017-11-16T12:43:49Z 2017-11-16T12:43:49Z 2016
dc.identifier.citation Naidoo K (2016) The Origins of Hate Crime Laws Fundamina (22)1 53-66 en
dc.identifier.issn 1021-545X
dc.description.abstract Hate crimes were fi rst recognised as a specifi c category of criminal conduct in the United States of America. Evidence of such recognition is supported by a number of state level and federal hate-crime laws that were enacted in the United States between the early 1980s and 1990s. There is a tendency in some American literature, however, to trace the recognition of hate crime as a specifi c category of criminal conduct to two specifi c historical time periods. The fi rst historical period that is usually considered is the nineteenth century post-American Civil War period when federal civil-rights statutes were passed by the American Congress to protect vulnerable groups of people who were victimised because of their race and prior status as slaves. The second time period that is considered is the mid-twentieth century, post-Second World War era up to the period of the Civil-Rights Movement. Irrespective of the origins of hate crime as a category of criminal conduct, their recognition has spawned a new category of crime and criminal laws in the United States of America and internationally. Contemporary hate-crime laws recognise a wide spectrum of prejudices and biases. Despite the international trend, particularly in democratic Western nations towards the recognition of hate crimes and the enactment of hate-crime laws, the Republic of South Africa has yet to enact a hate-crime law. en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher University of Kwazulu Natal, Faculty of Law & Management Studies en
dc.subject hate crime laws en
dc.subject origins of en
dc.title The Origins of Hate Crime Laws en
dc.type Article en
dc.description.department Criminal and Procedural Law en

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