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Music inspired by the Afrikaner cause (1852-1902) with special reference to the Transvaal Volkslied

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dc.contributor.advisor Troskie, Albert, 1942- Swanepoel, Aletta Margareta 2010-11-18T11:16:39Z 2010-11-18T11:16:39Z 2010-11-18T11:16:39Z 1979-01-31
dc.identifier.citation Swanepoel, Aletta Margareta (2010) Music inspired by the Afrikaner cause (1852-1902) with special reference to the Transvaal Volkslied, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <> en
dc.description.abstract This dissertation is an account of the response to the needs of the 19th century Afrikaner - for patriotic music and for national anthems, particularly a Transvaal Volkslied. The response came not only from the Transvaal (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek) and the rest of South Africa, but from the whole of the Western world including America and Russia. A corpus of 695 editions of pro-Afrikaner patriotic music has been compiled in Appendices AI and A2, representing around 350 compositions. This large figure shows that with each War of Independence waged by the burgers against Britain (1880-1881 and 1899-1902) there was a surge of music inspired by the Afrikaner cause. In fact, these wars of independence were chronicled in music - perhaps more so than any other war in world history. Attempts by Transvalers, Hollanders and South Africans in general to compose works aspiring to the accolade of Transvaal Volkslied are highlighted in the early chapters of this survey. It is shown how the national anthem of thc Orange Free State ('Heft, Burgers') was the incentive for the Transvaal to find an officially acceptable anthem of its own. Twenty seven early South African and Dutch works, each aimed at becoming a national anthem for the Transvaal, or for the whole of South Africa including the Transvaal, are dealt with. In particular, four compositions by J.S. de Villiers (two settings for "'n Ider nasie', and one each for 'De Vierkleur van ons dierbaar land' and 'Op, Op met de Vierkleur'), one by W.J. van Gorkom ('Een ieder nasie') and one by Catharina van Rees ('Kent gij dat Volk?') are highlighted. Chapter VI deals with 24 colourful patriotic compositions from all over the world. Some, like Les Boers by Jules Mulder, are treated in some detail. These works form a cross-section through 19th century music inspired by the Afrikaner cause. They range from the sad to the satirical, from the furious to the funny, and very few live on to this day - almost all have proved to be musical ephemera. But one song -- 'Kent gij dat volk vol heldemoed?' by the noble Dutch woman Catharina Felicia van Rees - rose above all opposition, and was finally accepted as the official Transvaal Volkslied. It stands supreme as an inspired work. Five chapters of the dissertation are devoted to the birth, lifespan and impact of this song (Chapters VII to XI). These chapters tell of 'Kent gij dat volk?', the song that soared through the world, inspired by the Afrikaner cause and by Pres. Thomas Burgers, created by Van Rees with a great love for the Boer people - inspiring others to such an extent that she and her song became the centre of a veritable cult. A Dutch song and a Dutch woman had become the epitome of the Afrikaner cause. Of the corpus of 695 items in Appendix AI, over 180 are editions and versions of 'Kent gij dat volk? '. These versions and all the music that could be traced during my research are incorporated in Chapter VIII - whether as sheet music or in albums, incorporations or variations, also indicate where she was acknowledged as composer and where not. For the piracy of her song, not only in the Western world but in South Africa as well, caused Catharina van Rees profound sadness. A great deal of confusion surrounded Cato and her song (Chapter X) and she also gave many people a great deal of pleasure (Chapter Xl). With over 180 known editions of the music and at least 35 poems written to this music (Chapter IX) one cannot but realize that here is music indeed. And by means of Appendix A1 one has a composite picture of the musical and emotional milieu into which 'Kent gij dat volk?'was born, gave battle and was victorious. This attempt to lift pro-Afrikaner music and especially the Transvaal Volkslied out of the general musical background, for scrutiny and comparison, has, in my opinion, revealed a wealth of interesting and useful information. And, could well lead to much needed further research into and documentation of Africana music. en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (2 v.)
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject South African music en
dc.subject Transvaal Volkslied en
dc.subject.ddc 782.4215990968
dc.subject.lcsh National songs -- South Africa -- History -- 19th century
dc.subject.lcsh Folk songs -- South Africa -- History -- 19th century
dc.title Music inspired by the Afrikaner cause (1852-1902) with special reference to the Transvaal Volkslied en
dc.type Dissertation en
dc.description.department Art history, Visual arts and Musicology M.A. (Musicology)

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