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Propagation and quality assessment for the introduction of Greyia Radlkoferi into commercialization

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dc.contributor.advisor Prinsloo, G.
dc.contributor.advisor Lall, N. Nogemane, Noluyolo 2018-02-09T07:30:13Z 2018-02-09T07:30:13Z 2017-06 2018-02
dc.identifier.citation Nogemane, Noluyolo (2017) Propagation and quality assessment for the introduction of Greyia Radlkoferi into commercialization, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <>
dc.description.abstract Greyia radlkoferi is a South African indigenous tree, which has recently been discovered to be a source of extracts that have a potential in the development of cosmeceutical herbal products having the ability to treat hyperpigmentation disorders. For product development however, G. radlkoferi would need to be available in a commercial scale. Greyia radlkoferi grows naturally in the wild and is often available for cultivation as an ornamental plant. In order to establish this plant into cultivation, suitable propagation techniques must be established for rapid multiplication of trees and thus a sustainable leaf production. For consistent and improved leaf supply to the market, agronomic practices that will enhance leaf production were investigated in the current study. Furthermore, in order to meet market demand in terms of good quality extracts with guaranteed therapeutic efficiency, pre-harvest and post-harvest factors that affect the chemical composition of the extracts were investigated. Recently developed biotechnology techniques such as metabolomics using 1H-NMR and multivariate data analysis offered a platform to study the chemical variation of extracts. Therefore, the current study was aimed at understanding the requirements for propagation and optimum leaf production as well as conditions that favour optimum production of secondary metabolite of G. radlkoferi plant material (at pre and post-harvest) and thus assess its commercial viability. To understand the effects of temperature on seed germination of G. radlkoferi, seeds were exposed to five temperatures (10°C, 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in the incubators in the laboratory. Germination of G. radlkoferi by seeds was discovered to be temperature dependent. The optimum germination temperature of 81% was obtained at 25°C. In the case of vegetative propagation by stem cuttings, the effect of cutting position (basal or apical), exogenous rooting hormone (Seradix1, Seradix 2, 0.1% IBA, 0.3% IBA and 0.8% IBA) and cutting position were investigated in the glasshouse. The cutting position had a significant effect on rooting of G. radlkoferi cuttings with basal cuttings exhibiting 35% rooting as compared to 6% rooting attained for the apical cuttings. A clear trend in rooting response to application of rooting hormones was observed, with 0.1% Indole butyric acid (IBA) showing the highest rooting percentage of 63%. Considering the outcomes of the propagation studies as well as the limited material for vegetative propagation, seed propagation appears to be the most suitable technique for large-scale multiplication of G. radlkoferi. The effect of different pruning techniques as well as harvesting frequencies on fresh and dry weights of G. radlkoferi leaves were evaluated. Factors considered were four pruning treatments (‘pruned but not tipped’, ‘tipped but not pruned’, ‘not pruned nor tipped’ as well as ‘pruned and tipped’) and three harvesting periods (monthly, bimonthly and once–off). Bimonthly harvests highly increased leaf production compared to trees that were harvested monthly and once-off with higher leaf fresh weight yield of 238 g per tree or 2.38 tons/per hectare as well as dry weight yield of 83 g per tree or 0.830 tons/hectare. This outcomes of this study further suggested that a suitable pruning practice for G. radlkoferi would be to either ‘prune only’ or ‘cut back the main stem’ rather than a combination of the two treatments. The influence of seasons (summer, autumn, winter and spring) on the anti-tyrosinase activity and metabolomics profile of G. radlkoferi leaf extracts were investigated. Seasons significantly influenced the chemical composition and the efficacy of the plant extracts. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine) with kojic acid as positive control. The highest tyrosinase inhibition concentration with IC50 (50% tyrosinase inhibition concentration) value of 30.3±1.8 μg/ml were obtained in winter harvested leaves compared to the other seasons. The lowest IC50 values were obtained in spring. Metabolomics analysis using orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) provided a clear class separation according to the harvest season. Extracts from winter harvested leaves contained sucrose, acetamide, alanine and a compound of the catechin group (gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin) as revealed by 1H-NMR metabolomics with assistance of LC-MS. Since compounds of the catechin group are well-known tyrosinase inhibitors, the high tyrosinase activity exhibited in extracts of winter harvested G. radlkoferi leaves could be ascribed to the presence of gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin. Based on the outcomes of the seasonal study, we suggest that in order to obtain extracts with high bioactivity, the best suitable time for harvesting leaf samples is in late autumn-early winter. Processing leaf material using three different drying methods (sun, oven and air drying) significantly influenced chemical composition and the efficacy of the plant extracts. Extracts prepared from air-dried leaf material showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition with IC50 value of 17.80 μg/ml compared to extracts of the other drying methods. Extracts of leaves processed with air drying preserved most metabolites during processing while extracts of sun-dried and oven-dried leaves clearly depleted some metabolites especially amino acids and some aromatic compounds. 1H-NMR metabolomics approach with the assistance of LC-MS data successfully determined a positive association of alanine, acetamide, sucrose and gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin as the chemical constituents contributing to the variation in the air-dried leaves compared to the oven-dried leaves. A positive association of valine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin and glucose contributed to the variation in air-dried group, compared to the sun-dried group. The highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibited in air-dried samples compared to the other drying methods was associated with the presence of gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin. Because air drying preserved most leaf metabolites compared to sun and oven drying, it was regarded as the most suitable method for processing G. radlkoferi leaf material. This study is the first scientific account that provides guidelines and recommendations to (1) establish G. radlkoferi as a cultivated plant for commercialization, (2) optimize leaf production for sustainable supply to the commercial markets and (3) optimize medicinal content of G. radlkoferi related to harvesting time and post-harvest processing (drying), for enhanced quality of extracts and its products en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xv, 134 leaves) ; illustrations (chiefly color), maps (some color)
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Greyia radlkoferi en
dc.subject Seed germination en
dc.subject Temperature en
dc.subject IBA en
dc.subject Cutting propagation en
dc.subject Pruning en
dc.subject Harvesting frequencies en
dc.subject 1H-NMR metabolomics en
dc.subject Anti-tyrosinase en
dc.subject Gallocatechin-(4 alpha->8)-epigallocatechin en
dc.subject.ddc 631.530968
dc.subject.lcsh Melianthaceae -- Quality -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Melianthaceae -- Propagation -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Pigmentation disorders -- Treatment -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Botanical drug industry -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Medicinal plants -- South Africa en
dc.subject.lcsh Human skin color -- South Africa en
dc.title Propagation and quality assessment for the introduction of Greyia Radlkoferi into commercialization en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.department Agriculture, Animal Health and Human Ecology en Ph. D. (Agriculture)

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