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Effects of nutrient-tannin interactions on intake and germination of woody plant species by ruminants

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dc.contributor.advisor Mbatha, Khanyisile R.
dc.contributor.advisor Tjelele, Julius T.
dc.contributor.author Monegi, Piet
dc.date.accessioned 2017-07-13T09:12:57Z
dc.date.available 2017-07-13T09:12:57Z
dc.date.issued 2017-02
dc.date.submitted 2017-07
dc.identifier.citation Monegi, Piet (2017) Effects of nutrient-tannin interactions on intake and germination of woody plant species by ruminants, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <http://hdl.handle.net/10500/22831>
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10500/22831
dc.description.abstract Woody plant encroachment is one of the major problems worldwide because it affects negatively the herbaceous layer, which provide forage for livestock production. However, the role of ruminants particularly browsers in the dispersal of woody plant seeds still remains a concern for farmers interested in grass production. Seedpods of various woody plant species constitute a crucial part of the diet of herbivores during the dry season because of their high nutritional quality compared to herbaceous material. The interaction of associated diet quality, seed characteristics and animal species among other factors play a pivotal part in the success of livestock faecal seeds dispersion. Furthermore, dispersed seeds that successfully grow into mature woody plants become an important source of protein for herbivores. The use of woody plants as a source forage is known to be limited by plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) such as condensed tannins. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the effects of condensed tannins and crude protein of Vachellia tortilis and Dichrostachys cinerea pods in seed recovery and germination fed to goats, and 2) the effects of diet mixing on the feed intake of plant species by goats. In the first experiment, a total of 12 female indigenous goats and 12 female Pedi sheep were utilised in this study, with the average body weights of 29.50 kg ± 1.60 (S.E) and 28.70 kg ± 1.60, respectively. Twelve goats were grouped into two groups of six goats per group, one group was fed D. cinerea pods and the other group was fed V. tortilis pods. The group of 12 sheep were divided similarly, the one group was fed D. cinerea pods and the other group was fed V. tortilis pods. Each animal was given V. tortilis and D. cinerea pods at 2.50% of their body weight. All animals were allowed to consume D. cinerea or V. tortilis pods within 24 h, after which the remaining pods were collected and weighed. Faecal collection commenced immediately after the 24 h pods feeding and was carried on until no seeds were discovered in faeces. All faeces extracted from sheep and goats were collected daily in the morning from the faecal bags. In the second experiment, a total of 24 indigenous goats with average body weight of 26.6 kg ± 0.51 were utilised. Goats were arbitrarily selected and grouped into four groups of six goats per group (goats were placed individually in 2 m2 pens). Each group was fed one of the following diets: diet one - Searsia lancea, diet two - S. pyroides, diet three - Euclea crispa and diet four - was a combination of the three plant species (Searsia lancea, S. pyroides and Euclea crispa). Searsia lancea, S. pyroides and E. crispa branches were collected every morning prior to feeding, and were weighed before offering the animals. Refusals were gathered and weighed, and intake was calculated as distinction between weight in and refusals. Plant species foliage were analysed for crude protein, condensed tannin, acid detergent lignin, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre. During the first experiment, the cumulative percentage seed recovery of V. tortilis from goats (46.00 % ± 1.90) and sheep (52.00 % ± 2.93) was significantly higher than D. cinerea from goats (13 % ± 1.47) and sheep (24.00 % ± 1.16). Germination percentage of D. cinerea seeds that passed through the gastro-intestinal tract of goats (33.12 % ± 2.94) and sheep (36.00 % ± 2.68) was significantly higher than V. tortilis seeds that passed through the gastro-intestinal tract of goats (28.98 % ± 2.68) and sheep (23.04 % ± 2.81). Average D. cinerea (34.56 % ± 1.99) and V. tortilis (26.02 %± 2.10) seeds that went through the gastro-intestinal of goats and sheep had a significantly higher germination rate than the control (i.e. no passage through the gut; D. cinerea = 2.31 % ± 1.55, V. tortilis = 5.07 % ± 2.68). The high mean cumulative percentage seed recovery of V. tortilis (18.80 %) may be attributed to the relatively higher crude protein than D. cinerea (12.20 %). This may encourage animal seed dispersal and germination of woody plant species with relatively high crude protein content. In the second experiment, Searsia lancea contained 8.50 % CP, 21.46 % acid detergent fibre (ADF), 12.50 % ADL and 39.37 % NDF. Searsia pyroides had 9.03 % CP, 27.07 % ADF, 10.89 % ADL and 40.30 % NDF. Euclea crispa had 6.19 % CP, 26.20 % ADF, 16.63 % ADL and 30.02 % NDF. Mixed diet (combination of the three plant species) had 8.96 % CP, 23.72 % ADF, 11.13 % ADL and 38.28 % NDF. Searsia lancea had 2.70 % of CTs while S. pyroides had 5.20 % CT, E. crispa had 6.44 % CT and mixed diet had 7.20 % CT. The mean dry matter intake varied significantly among dietary groups (P < 0.001). Similarly, goats offered a mixed diet consumed more CTs (P < 0.01) than those offered individual forage species. The high mean cumulative percentage seed recovery of V. tortilis may be attributed to the higher crude protein of V. tortilis (18.80 %) than D. cinerea (12.20 %). Higher passage rate may encourage animal seed dispersal and germination of plant species. The results from experiment two support the postulation that animals foraging in mixed diet systems consume more PSMs and achieve higher dry matter intake than animals confined to monocultures or single species feeding systems. Given that woody plant encroachment is already reducing farm-grazing capacities in African savannas and this problem is predicted to double by 2050, strategies that improve herbivore ability to consume woody plants will increase forage availability and inform bush control programmes and policies. Moreover, the concomitant increase in CTs by goats exposed to diets with diverse species also has positive implications for animal en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xi, 53 leaves) : tables, graphs en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject African savannas en
dc.subject Complementarity en
dc.subject Condensed tannins en
dc.subject Crude protein en
dc.subject Germination percentage en
dc.subject Herbivory en
dc.subject Plant defence en
dc.subject Seed dispersal en
dc.subject Seedpods en
dc.subject Seed viability en
dc.subject Woody plant encroachment en
dc.subject.ddc 636.2096
dc.subject.lcsh Ruminants -- Feeding and feeds -- Africa -- Case studies en
dc.subject.lcsh Tannin plants -- Nutrition -- Africa -- Case studies en
dc.subject.lcsh Woody plants -- Preharvest sprouting -- Africa -- Case studies en
dc.title Effects of nutrient-tannin interactions on intake and germination of woody plant species by ruminants en
dc.type Dissertation en
dc.description.department Agriculture, Animal Health and Human Ecology en
dc.description.degree M. Sc. (Agriculture) en


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