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The development of a conceptual framework of female clothing evaluative criteria preferences during the purchasing decision that includes body shape, personal values and emotions

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dc.contributor.advisor Kempen, E. L. Kasambala, Josephine 2017-06-23T13:43:22Z 2017-06-23T13:43:22Z 2016-10
dc.identifier.citation Kasambala, Josephine (2016) The development of a conceptual framework of female clothing evaluative criteria preferences during the purchasing decision that includes body shape, personal values and emotions, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <>
dc.description.abstract Much of the effort that goes into a purchasing decision occurs at the stage where a choice has to be made from the available alternative clothing products (Solomon & Rabolt, 2009:392). In this phase of the decision making process, consumers’ perceptions of the clothing item they anticipate to purchase includes evaluation of the clothing and the application of specific evaluative criteria in order to assess the suitability of the clothing item (Saricam, Kalaoglu, Ozdygu & Urun, & 2012:2). Evaluative criteria are the specifications or standards that consumers use when comparing and assessing alternatives (Forney, Park & Brandon, 2005:158). Because consumer needs vary not only by the product they want to purchase but also in terms of information (Forney et al., 2005:158), identifying the evaluative criteria that consumers use in the clothing purchasing decision-making process may provide an insight into preferences relative to specific products, such as clothing. While several studies have shown that the purchasing decision can be influenced by individual differences as well as environmental influences, it is no doubt that the investigation of each of these variables provides important clues to understanding consumer purchase decision broadly, but are limited in some parts in their explanations when it comes to clothing purchasing decision. Literature has highlighted the significance of body shape on clothing preferences because of the inherent relationship between the clothing product and the body. The difference in body shape often determines how clothing will drape on a figure, how comfortable the garment feels and ultimately how the clothing product will be evaluated by the consumer. Moreover, personal values, which are defined as the desired end-states have been shown to be one of the most powerful explanations of, and influence on the way consumers are likely to behave in a specific situation, such as the purchasing of new clothing product, the process that includes evaluation, choosing among the alternatives and finally the purchasing decision (Vincent 2014:119; Kim et al. 2002:481; Laverie, Klein & Klein, 1993:2). Additionally, while in the process of evaluating various clothing attributes for the suitability of the clothing product in terms of body shape and personal values, female consumers may experience either positive or negative emotions (Zeelenberg et al., 2008:18), depending on how the clothing is assessed. Most theories of emotional influences on decision making take the valence-based approach (Lerner & Keltener, 2000:473), focusing on the effects of positive versus negative emotional states. However, Lerner and Keltener (2000:473), have suggested that emotion specific approach, in particular the Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF) model is more effective to understand and predict the influence of specific emotions on decision making and behaviour. Consumers’ choice of the clothes based on the evaluative criteria during the decision making process is regarded as a form of consumer input to the clothing manufacturing and design (May-Plumee & Little, 2006:62). Since these underlying factors are regarded as important for understanding the rationale behind consumer clothing purchasing decision and behaviour, a thorough investigation of such factors on how they impact clothing evaluative criteria is greatly necessary. This may help and guide the clothing manufacturers and retailer on how to design and produce clothing products that are most relevant for the needs and preferences of South African female consumers. The study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of body shape and personal values on women’s preferences for and use of intrinsic evaluative criteria (styling/design, colour/pattern, appearance, appropriateness/acceptance, fit/sizing, comfort and fibre content/material) in the purchasing of casual blouse/top, trouser/skirt and dress. Information on the relevant importance of various clothing product attributes in the consumers’ mind may provide clothing manufacturers and designers with the basis for effective new clothing product development and marketing strategies. Furthermore, considering that emotions are involved in clothing purchasing decision, the study also focused on understanding the influence of emotions on clothing purchasing decision and subsequent behaviour. This study reflected the postpositive philosophical worldview which is typically associated with quantitative approach. In this case, the study assumed quantitative research design and methods and is regarded as exploratory in nature. Using purposeful, convenient and snowball techniques, the sample was solicited in Gauteng, Johannesburg, South Africa. A total of 316 women aged between 18 and 66 plus years old took part in the study. A survey using a group administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data from the respondents. The group administered questionnaire included demographic information of the participants, self-reported perceived body shape measure, personal values measure, evaluative measure and emotions measure. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic information, as well as on overall data before inferential statistics were performed. Inferential statistics such as the z-test was applied to establish the significant evaluative criteria and to test the proportions of the selected emotions. Chi-Square test of independence was used to determine the association between body shape evaluative criteria investigated, while nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed to establish the relationship between personal values and evaluative criteria and lastly, discriminant analysis was used determine purchasing behaviour. The analysis established that fit/sizing and comfort are the most important evaluative criteria that women consider in the purchasing of casual clothing categories studied. Respondents, also agreed that styling/design was the determinant evaluative criteria when purchasing a casual dress, while fit/sizing was the determinant evaluative criteria in the purchasing of a casual blouse/top and trouser/skirt. The results further showed that respondents in this study who perceive themselves to be diamond shaped, think colour/pattern is very important particularly when purchasing a casual blouse/top. However, when purchasing a trouser/skirt, the results reflected that the oval body shaped respondents think styling/design is very important, while respondents who perceive themselves to be rectangular body shaped, consider comfort when purchasing a casual dress. With regards to the relationship between personal values and evaluative criteria, the study found that when purchasing a casual blouse, respondents consider the appearance for the achievement of warm relationship with others, excitement and confidence. The results also indicated that through fit/size of a blouse/top, female consumers strongly aspired for self-respect. The results further showed that through the styling/design of a blouse/top, female consumers in this study want to achieve self-fulfillment, while a sense of accomplishment is influenced by the comfort of a casual blouse/top. On the other hand it was also revealed that appropriateness/acceptability of a casual blouse/top seemed to influence fun and enjoyment as well as sense of belonging. In the purchasing of a casual trouser/skirt, the results clearly showed that in order to achieve a warm relationship with others, female consumers strongly considered the fibre content/material and colour/pattern of trouser/skirt. The results also suggested that consumer considered the appearance of a trouser/skirt for the achievement of sense of belonging and self-fulfillment, while the styling/design of a trouser/skirt was somewhat considered for attainment of excitement. Through the fit/sizing of a casual trouser/skirt, it was shown that female consumers strongly aspired to achieve self-respect, confidence as well as fun and enjoyment. The results further highlighted that respondents considered appropriateness/acceptability of a casual trouser to somewhat influence being well-respected, while comfort of a casual trouser somewhat influenced a sense of accomplishment. In the purchasing of a casual dress, the results indicated that in order to achieve excitement and a warm relationship with others, female consumers in this study considered the appearance. The results further suggested that through the appearance of dress respondents somewhat also aspired for a sense of belonging. On the other hand, the results clearly revealed that respondents will consider fibre content/material, styling/design, fit/sizing and colour of casual dress in order to achieve self-respect, self-fulfillment, confidence, being well-respected and a sense of accomplishment. Lastly the results demonstrated that the best behaviour that drives the emotion “disgust” is “I walk away”. On the other had the best behaviour that drives the emotion “sadness” is “I spend more time shopping around”. The results were fully consistent and gave support to the emotions specific hypothesis (ATF) which postulates that different emotions of the same valence for instance, “disgust” and “sad”, both being negative, can exert opposing influences on decision making and behavior. However, concerning the positive specific emotions, it emerged that there were no behaviour differences between the emotions “happiness” and “contentment”, probably, suggesting unpredictable behaviour. It is, therefore, recommended that clothing designers and retailers should have a knowledge of the attributes that are preferred by female consumers of various body shape. It is also recommended that clothing manufacturers and retailers should endeavor to understand the value systems of their target. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge of understanding the role that body shape, personal values and emotions play in the clothing purchasing decision and behaviour. en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xxii, 286 leaves) : illustrations (some color)
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject Body shape. en
dc.subject Personal values en
dc.subject Female consumers en
dc.subject Evaluative criteria en
dc.subject Emotions en
dc.subject Appraisal Tendency Framework en
dc.subject Clothing purchasing decision en
dc.subject.ddc 338.476870820968
dc.subject.lcsh Clothing and dress -- Purchasing -- Psychological aspects en
dc.subject.lcsh Women's clothing industry -- South Africa -- Psychological aspects en
dc.subject.lcsh Consumer behavior -- South Africa -- Psychological aspects en
dc.title The development of a conceptual framework of female clothing evaluative criteria preferences during the purchasing decision that includes body shape, personal values and emotions en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.department Life and Consumer Sciences en Ph. D. (Consumer Science)

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