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An analysis of uneven development in Johannesburg: perspectives on urban employment

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dc.contributor.advisor De Beer, F. C. en Nemavhandu, Mulalo Justice en 2009-08-25T11:01:07Z 2009-08-25T11:01:07Z 2009-08-25T11:01:07Z 2008-06 en
dc.identifier.citation Nemavhandu, Mulalo Justice (2009) An analysis of uneven development in Johannesburg: perspectives on urban employment, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <> en
dc.description.abstract The apartheid Johannesburg was built on spatial divisions, uneven development was undertaken literally to ensure that whites and blacks were to live apart from each other. In the post-apartheid Johannesburg, uneven development persists, though no longer solely based on racial differences. These spatial divisions, as they did under apartheid, reinforce existing structures of the privileged, which mutually reinforce the system of spatial, economic and social exclusion, particularly for the unemployed poor. In the light of the continuation of this urban form, the study aimed to show that people are not unemployed only because there are no jobs generally available to people lacking marketable skills, as primarily argued by most researchers; but also because there is a strong correlation between unemployment and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities within the Johannesburg city. The study also aimed to test the applicability of various theories imported from USA and Europe, which are generally used to explain urban problems in South Africa, through identification of possible areas of contention. In attempt to explain the continuation of the apartheid urban form by the current government policy, the study adopted qualitative data collection techniques focusing on literature studies, documentary, personal observation and the design of a theoretical framework Based on the theoretical framework, the study came to the conclusion that the preoccupation with compact city development to eradicate the effects of uneven development and urban unemployment in Johannesburg is misdirected. It has revealed the need for the government to explore how best to improve the circumstances of low-income households in condition of urban sprawl. The outcome of the study in relation to uneven development is that, although Johannesburg exhibits apartheid patterns of racial oppression and exploitation, in post-apartheid South Africa, Johannesburg is characterized by structural inequality driven by two income gaps: between an increasingly multiracial middle class and the rest; and between the African urban working class and the African unemployed and marginalized poor. In this context, uneven development in Johannesburg can no longer be explained solely by race. High levels of intra-racial inequality, especially among the African population, mean that there are other social forces at work. The study also found that there has been the steady relocation of economic activities to the southern part of Johannesburg, particularly in Soweto. And that the vast majority of new households in Johannesburg are settling in and on the edges of existing townships, most often on the outer edges, mainly because of the informal housing and government's subsidised housing. Nonetheless, these developments continue to perpetuate the apartheid legacy of uneven development. According to the conclusion of the study there is evidence to suggest that employment accessibility within different population groups is largely caused by spatial factors, such as employment decentralisation and residential segregation. en
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (ix, 272 leaves)
dc.language.iso en en
dc.subject.ddc 338.968221
dc.subject.lcsh Economic development -- South Africa -- Johannesburg
dc.subject.lcsh Unemployment -- South Africa -- Johannesburg
dc.title An analysis of uneven development in Johannesburg: perspectives on urban employment en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.description.department Development Studies en D. Litt. et Phil. (Development Studies) en

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