Department of Mathematical Sciences
http://hdl.handle.net/10500/3016
2018-02-19T13:32:19ZMathematical symbolisation: challenges and instructional strategies for Limpopo Province secondary school learners
http://hdl.handle.net/10500/23154
Mathematical symbolisation: challenges and instructional strategies for Limpopo Province secondary school learners
Mutodi, Paul
This study reports on an investigation into the manner in which mathematical symbols influence learners’ understanding of mathematical concepts. The study was conducted in Greater Sekhukhune and Capricorn districts of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Multistage sampling (for the district), simple random sampling (for the schools), purposive sampling (for the teachers) and stratified random sampling with proportional allocation (for the learners) were used. The study was conducted in six schools randomly selected from rural, semi-urban and urban settings. A sample of 565 FET learners and 15 FET band mathematics teachers participated in the study. This study is guided by four interrelated constructivist theories: symbol sense, algebraic insight, APOS and procept theories. The research instruments for the study consist of questionnaires and interviews. A mixed method approach that was predominantly qualitative was employed. An analysis of learners’ difficulties with mathematical symbols produced three (3) clusters. The main cluster consists of 236 (41.6%) learners who indicate that they experience severe challenges with mathematical symbols compared to 108 (19.1%) learners who indicated that they could confidently handle and manipulate mathematical symbols with understanding. Six (6) categories of challenges with mathematical symbols emerged from learners’ encounters with mathematical symbols: reading mathematical text and symbols, prior knowledge, time allocated for mathematical classes and activities, lack of symbol sense and problem contexts and pedagogical approaches to mathematical symbolisation. Two sets of theme classes related to learners’ difficulties with mathematical symbols and instructional strategies emerged. Learners lack symbol sense for mathematical concepts and algebraic insight for problem solving. Learners stick to procedurally driven symbols at the expense of conceptual and contextual understanding. From a pedagogical perspective teachers indicated that they face the following difficulties when teaching: the challenge of introducing unfamiliar notation in a new topic; reading, writing and verbalising symbols; signifier and signified connections; and teaching both symbolisation and conceptual understanding simultaneously. The study recommends teachers to use strategies such as informed choice of subject matter and a pedagogical approach in which concepts are understood before they are symbolised.
2016-09-01T00:00:00ZQuasi-orthogonality and real zeros of some 2F2 and 3F2 polynomials
http://hdl.handle.net/10500/21949
Quasi-orthogonality and real zeros of some 2F2 and 3F2 polynomials
Johnston, Sarah Jane; Jordaan, Kerstin
In this paper, we prove the quasi-orthogonality of a family of 2F2 polynomials and several classes of 3F2 polynomials that do not appear in the Askey scheme for hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. Our results include, as a special case, two 3F2 polynomials considered by Dickinson in 1961. We also discuss the location and interlacing of the real zeros of our polynomials.
2015-01-01T00:00:00ZVariants of P-frames and associated rings
http://hdl.handle.net/10500/21795
Variants of P-frames and associated rings
Nsayi, Jissy Nsonde
We study variants of P-frames and associated rings, which can be viewed as natural
generalizations of the classical variants of P-spaces and associated rings. To be more
precise, we de ne quasi m-rings to be those rings in which every prime d-ideal is either
maximal or minimal. For a completely regular frame L, if the ring RL of real-valued
continuous functions of L is a quasi m-ring, we say L is a quasi cozero complemented
frame. These frames are less restricted than the cozero complemented frames. Using
these frames we study some properties of what are called quasi m-spaces, and observe
that the property of being a quasi m-space is inherited by cozero subspaces, dense z-
embedded subspaces, and regular-closed subspaces among normal quasi m-space.
M. Henriksen, J. Mart nez and R. G. Woods have de ned a Tychono space X to be a
quasi P-space in case every prime z-ideal of C(X) is either minimal or maximal. We call a
point I of L a quasi P-point if every prime z-ideal of RL contained in the maximal ideal
associated with I is either maximal or minimal. If all points of L are quasi P-points, we
say L is a quasi P-frame. This is a conservative de nition in the sense that X is a quasi
P-space if and only if the frame OX is a quasi P-frame. We characterize these frames
in terms of cozero elements, and, among cozero complemented frames, give a su cient
condition for a frame to be a quasi P-frame.
A Tychono space X is called a weak almost P-space if for every two zero-sets E and
F of X with IntE IntF, there is a nowhere dense zero-set H of X such that E F [H.
We present the pointfree version of weakly almost P-spaces. We de ne weakly regular
rings by a condition characterizing the rings C(X) for weak almost P-spaces X. We
show that a reduced f-ring is weakly regular if and only if every prime z-ideal in it which contains only zero-divisors is a d-ideal. We characterize the frames L for which the ring
RL of real-valued continuous functions on L is weakly regular.
We introduce the notions of boundary frames and boundary rings, and use them to
give another ring-theoretic characterization of boundary spaces. We show that X is a
boundary space if and only if C(X) is a boundary ring.
A Tychono space whose Stone- Cech compacti cation is a nite union of closed subspaces
each of which is an F-space is said to be nitely an F-space. Among normal spaces,
S. Larson gave a characterization of these spaces in terms of properties of function rings
C(X). By extending this notion to frames, we show that the normality restriction can
actually be dropped, even in spaces, and thus we sharpen Larson's result.
2015-12-01T00:00:00ZAlgebraic and multilinear-algebraic techniques for fast matrix multiplication
http://hdl.handle.net/10500/20180
Algebraic and multilinear-algebraic techniques for fast matrix multiplication
Gouaya, Guy Mathias
This dissertation reviews the theory of fast matrix multiplication from a multilinear-algebraic point of view, as
well as recent fast matrix multiplication algorithms based on discrete Fourier transforms over nite groups.
To this end, the algebraic approach is described in terms of group algebras over groups satisfying the triple
product Property, and the construction of such groups via uniquely solvable puzzles.
The higher order singular value decomposition is an important decomposition of tensors that retains some of
the properties of the singular value decomposition of matrices. However, we have proven a novel negative result
which demonstrates that the higher order singular value decomposition yields a matrix multiplication algorithm
that is no better than the standard algorithm.
2015-01-01T00:00:00Z